Völuspá(女占卜者的预言)(Völuspá)是古斯堪的那维亚语诗集 Poetic Edda(诗体埃达,或称老埃达)中收录的第一首诗。它完整地保存在两份手稿中:Codex RegiusHauksbók,特别是斯诺里·斯图鲁逊的Prose Edda(散文埃达,或称小埃达)中保留完整。托尔金深受古冰岛诗集的影响,最显著的便是他从中引用的矮人的名字。克里斯托弗·托尔金认为“霍比特人中出现的矮人名字是中洲人类语言的起始点。”[1][2]

几乎中洲中所有矮人的名字,甚至甘道夫的名字都源自Völuspá中的 Dvergatal(矮人篇目)。[3][4] DvergatalVöluspá中第10到16节的内容,下表为其内容及翻译:

# 原文 Bellows的英译本[5] 石琴娥斯文的中译本[6]
10

Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinn
dverga allra, en Durinn annarr;
þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðu
dvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.

There was Motsognir | the mightiest made
Of all the dwarfs, | and Durin next;
Many a likeness | of men they made,
The dwarfs in the earth, | as Durin said.

结果在所有小精灵之中
莫苏格尼成了最显赫的权贵,
另一个权贵是多林
用泥土捏成了人形侏儒,
小精灵的数目数不胜数,
多林数来数去弄不清楚。

11

Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,
Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, Dvalinn,
Nár ok Náinn Nípingr, Dáinn
Bívurr, Bávurr, Bömburr, Nóri,
Ánn ok Ánarr, Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.

Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,
Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, Dvalin,
Nar and Nain, | Niping, Dain,
Bifur, Bofur, | Bombur, Nori,
An and Onar, | Ai, Mjothvitnir.

尼埃和尼达,
诺德和索德,
厄斯特拉和维斯特拉,
阿尔休的本意是小偷,
特瓦林指的是个懒汉。
比伏尔巴伏尔
布姆比尔诺拉
还有安恩和安娜,
哎呀,老天爷!
名字长长一大串,
还有个名叫恶狼米德。

12

Veggr ok Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Þorinn,
Þrár ok Þráinn, Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,
Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.

Vigg and Gandalf | Vindalf, Thrain,
Thekk and Thorin, | Thror, Vit and Lit,
Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--
Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.

有的小精灵酿造麦酒,
有的小精灵切削棍杖,
管风的小人儿叫 索林
坦格和多林
特鲁、维特和李特,
纳阿和纽劳德,
还有雷金和拉德斯维,
个个名字都有它意思,
我不妨细细说道分明。

13

Fíli, Kíli, Fundinn, Náli,
Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,
Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,
Frár, Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,
Aurvangr, Jari, Eikinskjaldi.

Fili, Kili, | Fundin, Nali,
Hepti, Vili, | Hannar, Sviur,
(Billing, Bruni, | Bildr and Buri,)
Frar, Hornbori, | Fræg and Loni,
Aurvang, Jari, | Eikinskjaldi.

费莱和凯莱,
弗恩登纳莱
海勃特、维莱,
汉纳、斯维尔,
弗拉、洪布尔,
弗莱格和朗内
雅莱和“粘泥巴”,
埃克肖尔德就是“栎树盾牌

14

Mál er dverga í Dvalins liði
ljóna kindum til Lofars telja,
þeir er sóttu frá salar steini
Aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.

The race of the dwarfs | in Dvalin's throng
Down to Lofar | the list must I tell;
The rocks they left, | and through wet lands
They sought a home | in the fields of sand.

说得那么多总要有个数,
特瓦林家族人丁最兴旺。
洛弗尔家族香火永不辍,
小精灵人数岂能数得清。
还有人住在沙地洞穴里,
他们从荒山野林搬下来,
在平川盖起一幢幢房舍。

15

Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,
Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, Glóinn,
Dóri, Óri Dúfr, Andvari
Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.

There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,
Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, Gloin,
Dori, Ori, | Duf, Andvari,
Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.

休要怪我太啰嗦,
那人数委实真多。
有特鲁普尼尔,
有道格赛拉西尔,
莱汶、格罗
多莱奥莱
多芙、恩德瓦尔,
斯基弗尔、维尔弗尔,
还有斯加维德,
哎呀,老天爷!

16

Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;
þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,
langniðja tal Lofars hafat.

Alf and Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi,
Fjalar and Frosti, | Finn and Ginnar;
So for all time | shall the tale be known,
The list of all | the forbears of Lofar.

阿尔弗和 英格维
栎树盾牌埃克肖尔德,
费雅勒和弗洛斯蒂,
费恩和金娜,
一长串又一长串的名字,
他们是人类远古的祖先,
个个都值得永志不忘,
只要人类还生存下去。

外部链接

引用与注释

  1. The History of Middle-earth Volume XII-The Peoples of Middle-earth,2。Commentary to §58
  2. Charles B. Noad, "Review: The Peoples of Middle-earth (The History of Middle-earth XII)" at Tolkiensociety.org. See section "Dwarvish and Mannish Related". Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  3. 托尔金信件集第25封信
  4. 现今,Dvergatal被认为是后来插入的篇目,而在新版的 Völuspá中被省去。
  5. 译文中对应托尔金笔下的矮人名字已用重定向链接
  6. 为2000年译林出版社出版。此中译本,对比英译本,可能参照另一版本的原稿,所以中间内容多少有删漏增补之处。文中的矮人名字已重定向至目前本站所接受的译名版本,文中仍沿用原版译名
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