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前努门诺尔人
Pre-Númenóreans
分类 人类
居住地 中洲的广大地区(包括埃奈德地区明希瑞亚斯阿加黑蛮地布理地区埃林沃恩等地)
语言 前努门诺尔语
成员 斜眼南方人弗雷卡伍尔夫塔尔-埃尔玛哈扎德布尔达麦曼·黄油菊

前努门诺尔人Pre-Númenóreans)是中洲人类原住民,与继承努门诺尔遗产的杜内丹人相对。这些原住人类是第二批向西迁徙的伊甸人的后裔。他们那些抵达了贝烈瑞安德的亲族后来被称作哈拉丁人,而他们自己定居在了埃奈德地区。这片区域于第二纪元被努门诺尔人殖民。

按照杜内丹人的看法,前努门诺尔人与他们和北方人类之间都毫无亲缘可言,但实际上这是不符合事实的。

历史

第一纪元

最初,人类自希尔多瑞恩向西迁徙。在白色山脉附近,这些人类中的第二批移民加入了德鲁伊甸人的部族并与他们一同生活了一段时间。而当人类再次被大敌的邪恶逼迫,大部分不得不离开白色山脉一带继续向西流浪时,一部分德鲁伊甸人也随着他们向西方行进,越过了卡伦纳松豁口

但是,他们中有一些人在西迁途中未能穿越覆盖明希瑞亚斯与埃奈德地区西部的密林,只得滞留在后方。这部分人类就是后世前努门诺尔人的先祖。他们最终在蓝色山脉以南的沿海区域,特别是在明希瑞亚斯定居下来。在第一纪元的最后,这些人类已分布极广。北至巴兰都因河灰水河之间的广阔土地,南至乌姆巴尔,都能看到他们的身影。

第二纪元

愤怒之战中,贝烈瑞安德覆毁,邪恶人类纷纷从安格班逃往其他地区避难。居住在白色山脉中,发展水平较为落后的前努门诺尔人缺乏统一的领导,很早就已分散为森林中的小部落各自生活,因此面对入侵者时手无缚鸡之力,只得束手就擒。由于他们拒绝加入反抗维拉的军队,他们最终遭到了邪恶人类的恐吓与征服。在这黑暗的岁月里,那些被侵略的白色山脉原住民不得不迁居至迷雾山脉南部的河谷中,并随即进入旷野中继续游荡。其中一些人最终到达了古冢岗,他们成为了日后布理人的祖先。

当努门诺尔人返回中洲时,他们并没有辨识出明希瑞亚斯的森林人类和伊甸人之间的亲缘。由于森林人类的语言与阿督耐克语之间并无多少关联,努门诺尔人甚至将这些林中人类和黑暗人类混为一谈。

早在第二纪元,在后世将成为刚铎国土的内陆地区就已存在远离海岸的前努门诺尔人社群。除了阿加和一个原始的小渔港外,贝尔法拉斯湾的海岸上很可能没有其他的人类聚居地——部分埃尔达定居在埃蒂尔泷德并自那里西渡,许多人类出于对他们的恐惧逃进了白色山脉深处,躲藏在山脉两侧的谷地里。

努门诺尔国王阿勒达瑞安的时代之后,其继任者继续推进他的殖民建设工作,这最终导致他们与前努门诺尔人之间爆发了持续的武装冲突,直到他们尽可能伏击并歼灭了这些原住民。自此,两支民族成了宿敌。努门诺尔殖民者在征服和建设时从不考虑合理安排农业或补植树木,他们的造船产业也严重破坏了河流沿岸与海岸线的生态。努门诺尔人在格瓦斯罗河南北的森林中开辟了无数道路,他们不断地向明希瑞亚斯埃奈德地区推进并摧毁阻碍他们征服大业的一切。同时,殖民者们在内陆地区建设了据点,他们的势力范围直抵埃瑞吉安的南部边界格蓝都因河,甚至越过了前努门诺尔人与所谓的“敌对民族”居住的范围。这些人类是先前被驱逐和残杀的白色山脉原住民的残余。最终,面对努门诺尔殖民者的暴虐与残忍,原住民们屈服了。他们克服了对精灵的恐惧,从明希瑞亚斯向北逃亡至位于巴兰都因河河口南部的埃林沃恩大岬角一带,在附近的森林里避难。许多埃奈德地区的人类也逃往了黑蛮地,并躲藏在山中。

在第二纪元刚刚进入第二个千年之时,大敌索隆继续向西部地区施压,并离开了他在鲁恩的据点,迁至魔多。在那里,他受到了原住民的欢迎。他利用了他们对努门诺尔人的憎恨,将他们征募进了自己的军队,作为突击队的间谍与向导。前努门诺尔人与索隆的合作对努门诺尔的殖民事业造成了很大的破坏,许多据点遭到了劫掠和烧毁。

努门诺尔国王塔尔-米那斯提尔派遣了一支强大的舰队驰援中洲,抗击索隆。在激战之后,魔多的军队在后方被击溃了,虽然这为西部地区带来了长久的安定与和平,但代价也很惨重——埃利阿多地区几乎满目疮痍。在大战中得以幸存的前努门诺尔人显然在战后再次渡过了格蓝都因河南下,回到相较横遭战火洗劫的埃利阿多而言更为安全的黑蛮地。

在南方,努门诺尔人发现了一个绝佳的天然港湾,并沿用了当地前努门诺尔人为其起的名字——乌姆巴尔忠贞派港口城市佩拉基尔的殖民队伍也于2350年在黑蛮祠附近发现了前努门诺尔人的社群并实现了与那些被称为山中之民的前努门诺尔人的直接接触,双方虽没有爆发激烈的冲突,却也没有建立友谊。而这些山中人类在索隆逃离魔多,吉尔-加拉德实力愈发强大之后也终于反悔了,逐渐离开了索隆邪恶的控制,但他们对这位旧主的恐惧与服从从未消退。

努门诺尔沦亡后,忠贞派埃兰迪尔及其追随者在中洲建立了流亡王国——阿尔诺刚铎。许多前努门诺尔人在这时选择了离开索隆的控制,接受流亡王国的统治。但是,虽然名义上前努门诺尔人成为了流亡政权的臣民,他们仍然对与努门诺尔相关的一切怀恨在心,态度也很不友好。同时,他们也从未学会区分忠王派与忠贞派。另外,他们中的许多人仍然没有忘记索隆得势的那些日子。即便如此,前努门诺尔人仍然向新兴势力臣服了。最早向刚铎效忠的正是由山中之王率领的山中之民。

不幸的是,现实最终证明,山中之民并不是刚铎可靠的盟友。当索隆再次向中洲的自由人民开战时,伊熙尔杜召集山中之民为刚铎而战,反抗索隆。但他们却出于对索隆的恐惧而不愿履行誓言。于是伊熙尔杜愤怒地咒诅了他们:

汝将成末代之王……汝等永远不得安息,直到履行誓言之日。

诅咒应验了,这些背誓者逃入了山中,并躲藏了起来。往后的岁月里,他们逐渐衰微,死后也无法安宁,而是成为亡灵,在生前居住的土地上游荡,长久不得解脱,直到预言中的那一天来临。

第三纪元

The indigenous Men of Eriador were absorbed by the civilisation of Arnor.By the time of Valandil this mixed population was diminished and there was not enough people to maintain all the places built by Elendil, until eventually Arnor was split into smaller realms. However when the Hobbits came to Arnor, Númenóreans, allies and enemies were numerous. The Númenorean element was stronger in Arthedain and thinner in Rhudaur until utterly failed. Eventually Angmar was populated by evil men gathered by the Witch-king.

The indigenous Men were also absorbed in the South Kingdom of Gondor, which pursued an expansionist policy. Gondor's borders were extended by the Ship-kings, subduing the pre-Númenóreans. Their blood was mixed and in the following generations the Dúnedain's power and wisdom was diminished.

Hill-men practiced magic and from the 14th century on, fortified the hills of Eriador with dark structures harassed Rhudaur until an evil lord, allied with Angmar, seized its throne and eventually all of Rhudaur was occupied by evil Men subject to Angmar. The Dúnedain were either slain or fled west. The Angmar War however caused those populations to perish. Cardolan was also deserted and could not be repopulated. Rhudaur came to be inhabited only by monsters. After the Great Plague, Minhiriath was deserted except for hunters in Eryn Vorn. Other known Mannish settlements included only the Bree-land and the Lossoth in the far North.

As Gondor expanded East and South, the few remote Dunlendings resisted the Númenórean influence and Enedwaith had no such settlements, other than Tharbad. They remained unaffected, independent and even unfriendly to the Dúnedain, holding their own manners and Dunlendish language.However the Dunlendings also remained hostile to those with Orc-blood. The Dunlendings also dwelt alongside the Stoor Hobbits during their Wandering Days and the latter even formed a related language to theirs.

The Dunlendings suffered from the Great Plague less than other peoples owing to their isolation and were still found in the foothills of the Misty Mountains. By the time of the Ruling Stewards they ceased to be subjects of Gondor and, being surrounded by barbarous folk, they moved to settle the region of Calenardhon as its people dwindled during the Watchful Peace.

In T.A. 2510 Calenardhon passed to the Northern Eotheod who came from Rhovanion and were viewed as usurpers by the wild hill-men and Dunlending herd-folk. Kings Brego and Aldor drove the Dunlendings out of Rohan beyond the Isen until Enedwaith. As the ensuing enmity did not concern the Stewards, the Dunlendings kept hostilities to the Rohirrim and attacked whenever the latter were weak or in trouble.

After the death of King Aldor, and as Isengard became more friendly to them, the Dunlendings passed and settled northern Westfold, the mountain glens around the Ring, and southern eaves of Fangorn, becoming openly hostile. This allowed the two peoples to mingle in some peaceful circumstances; and the dark-haired Landlord Freca was said to have Dunlendish blood When it became clear that the raiders were coming from near Isengard, in T.A. 2710 King Déor led an expedition to the north. He found and defeated a host of Dunlendings, but discovered that Isengard was held by hostile forces.

Freca's son, Wulf, allied with the Corsairs of Umbar who were in turn stirred by Sauron, keeping safe his properties at Adorn. Joining his kin from outside of Rohan with enemies of Gondor that had landed in the mouths of Lefnui and Isen, Rohan was invaded from the East, the Isen and Isengard, finally losing Edoras. Gondor, fighting Corsair fleets, could not help. The usurping Dunlendings were reduced after the Long Winter and finished off by Fréaláf. The Rohirrim now kept a strong force in north Westfold.

Eventually many Dunlendings were found later in the West-March, until again Folcwine, aided by Gondor, reconquered it. But the people remaining between Isen and Adorn were largely of mixed blood, and not loyal to Edoras.

Before the War of the Ring, Saruman found in those peoples an opportunity for creating crossbreeds of Orcs and Men. The Dunlendings allied with him and joined his forces in the Battle of the Hornburg. After the War, under King Éomer, there was relative peace.
  1. 魔戒III-王者归来卷V-第四章,刚铎围城。
  2. 魔戒III-王者归来卷V-第二章,灰衣劲旅的征程。
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