|“||以下内容均来自：The Shaping of Middle-earth
- 1 ※前言※
- 2 § 前言 §
- 3 § 正文 §
- 4 § 维林诺编年史·修改 §
- 5 § 维林诺编年史·评论 §
- 6 § 维林诺编年史·附录 §
- 修改日期：2019年3月19日 02:11 星期二
§ 前言 §
I refer to this work as the ‘earliest’ Annals of Valinor because it was followed later in the 1930s by a second version, and then, after the completion of The Lord of the Rings and very probably in 1951-2, by a third, entitled The Annals of Aman, which though still a part of the continuous evolution of these Annals is a major new work, and which contains some of the finest prose in all the Matter of the Elder Days.
These earliest Annals of Valinor are comprised in a short manuscript of nine pages written in ink. There is a good deal of emendation and interpolation, some changes being made in ink and probably not much if any later than the first writing of the text, while a second layer of change consists of alterations in faint and rapid pencil that are not always legible. These latter include two quite substantial passages (given in notes 14 and 18) which introduce wholly new material concerning events in Middle-earth.
The text that follows is that of the Annals as originally written, apart from one or two insignificant alterations of wording that are taken up silently, and all later changes are given in the numbered notes, other than those made to dates. These are many and complex and are dealt with all together, separately, at the end of the notes.
It is certain that these Annals belong to the same period as the Quenta, but also that they are later than the Quenta. This is seen from the fact that whereas in Q Finrod (= the later Finarfin) returned to Valinor out of the far North after the burning of the ships, and the later story of his return earlier, after the Prophecy of the North, is only introduced in a marginal note (§5 note 8 and commentary p. 204), in the Annals the later story is already embodied in the text (Valian Year 2993). The Annals have Beleriand, whereas Q, as far as §12, had Broseliand emended to Beleriand; they have several names that do not occur in Q, e. g. Bladorion, Dagor-os-Giliath, Drengist, Eredwethion (this only by later emendation in Q); and Eredlómin has its later sense of the Echoing Mountains, not as in Q and on the first map of the Shadowy Mountains (see pp. 233-4). I see no way of showing that the Annals are later, or earlier, than the Ambarkanta, but the matter seems of no importance; the two texts certainly belong to very much the same time.
Following my commentary on the Annals, which I shall re- fer to as 'AV', I give the Old English versions in an appendix.
ANNALS OF VALINOR
(These and the Annals of Beleriand were written by Pengolod the Wise of Gondolin, before its fall, and after at Sirion's Haven, and at Tavrobel in Tol Eressëa after his return unto the West, and there seen and translated by Eriol of Leithien, that is Ælfwine of the Angelcynn. )
§ 正文 §
0年 。At the beginning Ilúvatar, that is ‘Allfather’, made all things, and the Valar, that is the ‘Powers', came into the World. These are nine, Manwë, Ulmo, Aulë, Oromë, Tulkas, Ossë, Mandos, Lórien, and Melko. Of these Manwë and Melko were most puissant and were brethren, and Manwë was lord of the Valar and holy; but Melko turned to lust and pride and violence and evil, and his name is accursed, and is not uttered, but he is called Morgoth. The spouses of the Valar were Varda, and Yavanna, who were sisters; and Vana; and the sister of Oromë, Nessa the wife of Tulkas; 1 and Uinen lady of the Seas; and Nienna sister of Manwë and Melko; and Estë. No spouse hath Ulmo or Melko. 2 With them came many lesser spirits, their children, or beings of their own kind but of less might; these are the Valarindi.
Time was counted in the world before the Sun and Moon by the Valar according to ages, and a Valian age hath 100 of the years of the Valar, which are each as ten years are now.
500年 。In the Valian Year 500: Morgoth destroyed by deceit the Lamps3 which Aulë made for the lighting of the World, and the Valar, save Morgoth, retired to the West and built there Valinor between the Outer Seas that surround the Earth and the Great Seas of the West, and on the shores of these they piled great mountains. But the symmetry of land and sea was first broken in those days. 4
1000年 。In the Valian Year 1000, after the building of Valinor, and Valmar the city of the Gods, the Valar brought into being the Two Trees of Silver and of Gold, whose bloom gave light unto Valinor.
But all this while Morgoth had dwelt in the Middle-earth and made him a great fortress in the North of the World; and he broke and twisted the Earth much in that time. 5
A thousand Valian Years of bliss and glory followed in Valinor, but growth that began on Middle-earth at the lighting of the Lamps was checked. To Middle-earth came only Oromë to hunt in the dark woods of the ancient Earth, and sometimes Yavanna walked there.
2000年 。The Valian Year 2000 is accounted the Noontide of the Blessed Realm, and the full season of the mirth of the Gods. Then did Varda make the stars6 and set them aloft, and thereafter some of the Valarindi strayed into the Middle-earth, and among them was Melian, whose voice was renowned in Valmar. But she returned not thither for many ages, and the nightingales sang about her in the dark woods of the Western Lands.
2000-2100年 。At the first shining of the Sickle of the Gods which Varda set7 above the North as a threat to Morgoth and an omen of his fall, the elder children of Ilúvatar awoke in the midmost of the World: they are the Elves. 8 Oromë found them and befriended them; and the most part under his guidance marched West and North to the shores of Beleriand, being bidden by the Gods to Valinor.
But first Morgoth in a great war was bound and made captive and imprisoned in Mandos. There he was confined in punishment for nine ages (900 Valian Years)9 until he sought for pardon. In that war the lands were rent and sundered anew. 10
The Quendi11 and the Noldoli were the first to reach Valinor, and upon the hill of Kôr nigh to the strand they built the city of Tûn. But the Teleri who came after abode an age (100 Valian Years) upon the shores of Beleriand, and some never departed thence. Of these most renowned was Thingol (Sindingul)12 brother of Elwë, lord of the Teleri, whom Melian enchanted. Her he after wedded and dwelt as a king in Beleriand, but this was after the departure of most of the Teleri, drawn by Ulmo upon Tol Eressëa. 13 This is the Valian Years 2000 to 2100.
2100-2200年 。From 2100 to 2200 the Teleri dwelt on Tol Eressëa in the Great Sea within sight of Valinor; in 2200 they came in their ships to Valinor, and dwelt upon its eastern strands, and there they made the town and haven of Alqalondë or ‘Swan-haven’, so called because there were moored their swan-shaped boats.
大约2500年 。About 2500 the Noldoli invented and began the fashioning of gems; and after a while Fëanor the smith, eldest son of Finwë chief of the Noldoli, devised the thrice-renowned Silmarils, concerning the fates of which these tales tell. They shone of their own light, being filled with the radiance of the Two Trees, the holy light of Valinor, blended to a marvellous fire. 14
2900年 。In 2900 Morgoth sued for pardon, and at the prayers of Nienna his sister, and by the clemency of Manwë his brother, but against the wish of Tulkas and Aulë, he was released, and feigned humility and repentance, obeisance to the Valar, and love and friendship for the Elves, and dwelt in Valinor in ever-increasing freedom. But he lied and dissembled, and most he cozened the Noldoli, for he had much to teach, and they had an over-mastering desire to learn; but he coveted their gems and lusted for the Silmarils.
2950年 。By the doom of the Gods Fëanor, eldest son of Finwë, and his household and following was deposed from the leadership of the Noldoli—wherefore the house of Fëanor was after called the Dispossessed, for this and because Morgoth after robbed them of their treasure—and the Gods sent also to apprehend Morgoth. But he fled into hiding in Arvalin, and plotted evil. 16
2990-2991年 。Morgoth now completed his designs and with the aid of Ungoliantë out of Arvalin stole back into Valinor, and destroyed the Trees, escaping in the gathering dark northward, where he sacked the dwellings of Fëanor, and carried off a host of jewels, among them the Silmarils; and he slew Finwë and many Elves and thus defiled Valinor and began slaughter in the World. 17 Though hunted by the Valar he escaped into the North of the Hither Lands and re-established there his stronghold, and bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs. 18
2991年 。Valinor lay now in great gloom, and darkness, save only for the stars, fell on all the World. But Fëanor against the will of the Valar returned to Tûn and claimed the kingship of the Noldoli after Finwë, and he summoned to Tûn all the people of that kindred. And Fëanor spoke to them, and his words were filled with the lies of Morgoth, and distrust of the Valar, even though his heart was hot with hate for Morgoth, slayer of his father and robber of his gems.
The most of the Noldoli19 he persuaded to follow him out of Valinor and recover their realms on earth, lest they be filched by the younger children of Ilúvatar, Men (herein he echoed Morgoth unwitting); and war for ever on Morgoth seeking to recover their treasure. At that meeting Fëanor and his sons swore their dreadful oath to slay or pursue any soever that held a Silmaril against their will.
2992年 。The march began, though the Gods forbade (and yet hindered not), but under divided leadership, for Fingolfin's house held him for king. Long was the people preparing. Then it came into Fëanor's heart that never should that great host, both warriors and other, and store of goods make the vast leagues unto the North (for Tûn beneath Taniquetil is upon the Girdle of the Earth, where the Great Seas are measurelessly wide) save with the help of ships. But the Teleri alone had ships, and they would not yield or lend them against the will of the Valar.
Thus about 2992 of Valian Years befell the dreadful battle about Alqalondë, and the Kin-slaying evilly renowned in song, where the Noldoli distraught furthered Morgoth's work. But the Noldoli overcame the Teleri and took their ships, and fared slowly north along the rocky coasts in great peril and hardship and amid dissensions.
2993年 。In 2993 it is said they came to a place where a high rock stands above the shores, and there stood either Mandos or his messenger and spoke the Doom of Mandos. For the kin-slaying he cursed the house of Fëanor, and to a less degree all who followed them or shared in their emprise, unless they would return to abide the doom and pardon of the Valar. But if they would not, then should evil fortune and disaster befall them, and ever from treachery of kin towards kin; and their oath should turn against them; and a measure of mortality should visit them, that they should be lightly slain with weapons, or torments, or sorrow, and in the end fade and wane before the younger race. And much else he foretold darkly that after befell, warning them that the Valar would fence Valinor against their return. 20
But Fëanor hardened his heart and held on, and so also but reluctantly did Fingolfin's folk, feeling the constraint of their kindred and fearing for the doom of the Gods (for not all of Fingolfin's house had been guiltless of the kin-slaying). Felagund and the other sons of Finrod went forward also, for they had aforetime great fellowship, Felagund with the sons of Fingolfin, and Orodreth, Angrod, and Egnor with Celegorm and Curufin sons of Fëanor. Yet the lords of this third house were less haughty and more fair than the others, and had had no part in the kin-slaying, and many with Finrod himself returned unto Valinor and the pardon of the Gods. But Aulë their ancient friend smiled on them no more, and the Teleri were estranged.
2994年 。The Noldoli came to the bitter North, and further they would not dare, for there is a strait between the Western Land (whereon Valinor is built) that curveth east, and the Hither Lands which bear west, and through this the chill waters of the Outer Seas and the waves of the Great Sea flow together, and there are vast mists of deathly cold, and the streams are filled with clashing hills of ice and with the grinding of ice submerged. This strait was named Helkaraksë.
But the ships that remained, many having been lost, were too few to carry all across, and dissensions awoke between Fëanor and Fingolfin. But Fëanor seized the ships and sailed east; 21 and he said: ‘Let the murmurers whine their way back to the shadows of Valinor. ’ And he burned the ships upon the eastern shore, and so great was its fire that the Noldoli left behind saw its redness afar off.
2995年 。Thus about 2995 Fëanor came unto Beleriand and the shores beneath Eredlómin the Echoing Mountains, and their landing was at the narrow inlet Drengist that runs into Dorlómen. And they came thence into Dorlómen and about the north of the mountains of Mithrim, and camped in the land of Hithlum in that part that is named Mithrim and north of the great lake that hath the same name.
2996年 。2996 And in the land of Mithrim they fought an army of Morgoth aroused by the burning and the rumour of their advance; and they were victorious and drove away the Orcs with slaughter, and pursued them beyond Eredwethion (the Shadowy Mountains) into Bladorion. And that battle is the First Battle of Beleriand, and is called Dagor-os-Giliath, the Battle under Stars; for all was as yet dark. But the victory was marred by the death of Fëanor, who was wounded mortally by Gothmog, lord of Balrogs, when he advanced unwarily too far upon Bladorion; 22 and Fëanor was borne back to Mithrim and died there, reminding his sons of their oath. To this they now added an oath of vengeance for their father.
2997年 。 But Maidros eldest son of Fëanor was caught in the snares of Morgoth. For Morgoth feigned to treat with him, and Maidros feigned to be willing, and either purposed evil to the other, and came with force to the parley; but Morgoth with the more, and Maidros was made captive.
Then Morgoth held him as hostage, and swore only to release him if the Noldoli would march away either to Valinor, if they could, or from Beleriand and away to the far South; and if they would not he would torment Maidros.
But the Noldoli trusted not that he would release Maidros if they departed, nor were they willing to do so whatever he might do.
2998年 。Wherefore in 2998 Morgoth hung Maidros by the right wrist in a band of hellwrought steel above a precipice upon Thangorodrim, where none could reach him.
Now it is told that Fingolfin and the sons of Finrod23 won their way at last with grievous losses and with minished might into the North of the World. And they came perforce over Helkaraksë, being unwilling to retrace their way to Valinor, and having no ships; but their agony in that crossing was very great and their hearts were filled with bitterness against Fëanor.
3000年 。And even as they came the First Ages of the World were ended; 24 and these are reckoned as 30000 years or 3000 years of the Valar; whereof the first Thousand was before the Trees, and Two Thousand save nine were Years of the Trees or of the Holy Light, which lived after and lives yet only in the Silmarils. And the Nine are the Years of Darkness or the Darkening of Valinor.
But towards the end of this time as is elsewhere told the Gods made the Sun and Moon and sent them forth over the World, and light came unto the Hither Lands. 25 And Men awoke in the East of the World even at the first Dawn. 26
But with the first Moonrise Fingolfin set foot upon the North; for the Moonrise came ere the Dawn, even as Silpion of old bloomed ere Laurelin and was the elder of the Trees. But the first Dawn shone upon Fingolfin's march, and his banners blue and silver were unfurled, and flowers sprang beneath Ms marching feet, for a time of opening and growth was come into the Earth, and good of evil as ever happens.
But Fingolfin marched through the very fastness of Morgoth's land, Dor-Daideloth27 the Land of Dread, and the Orcs fled before the new light amazed, and hid beneath the earth; and the Elves smote upon the gates of Angband and their trumpets echoed in Thangorodrim's towers.
They came thus south unto Mithrim, and little love28 was there between them and the house of Fëanor; and the folk of Fëanor removed and camped upon the southern shores, and the lake lay between the peoples. And from this time are reckoned the Years of the Sun, and these things happened in the first year. And after came measured time into the World, and the growth and change and ageing of all things was thereafter more swift even in Valinor, but most in the Hither Lands, 29 the mortal regions between the Seas of East and West. And what else happened is recorded in the Annals of Beleriand, and in the Pennas or Qenta, and in many songs and tales.
1 Added here in pencil: daughter of Yavanna.
2 This passage, from and Nienna..., was emended in pencil to read: and Vairë; and Estë. No spouse hath Ulmo or Melko or Nienna, Manwë's sister and Melko's.
3 Cf. the title to the Ambarkanta map IV (see insert): The World about V. Y. 500 after the fall of the Lamps.
4 But the symmetry of land and sea was first broken in those days is an addition, but was probably made at the time of writing of the text. Cf. pp. 301-2 and the citation from The Silmarillion given there.
5 and he broke and twisted the Earth much in that time is another addition probably made at the time of writing.
6 The paragraph to this point was emended in ink to read: But on a time (1900) Varda began the making of the stars... The sentence The Valian Year 2000 is accounted the Noontide of the Blessed Realm, and the fall season of the mirth of the Gods was removed to a later point: see note 10.
7 Added here in ink: last and (i. e. the Sickle of the Gods which Varda set last and above the North).
8 Added here in ink: Hence are they catted the children of the stars.
9 nine ages (900 Valian Years) emended in ink to seven ages (700 Valian Years).
10 At this point the sentence The Valian Year 2000... was reintroduced (see note 6).
11 Quendi > Lindar in pencil.
12 Sindingul > Tidingol in pencil.
13 Added here to pencil: His folk looked for him in vain, and his sleep lasted till they had gone.
14 Added here to pencil:
2700 Here the Green-elves or Laiqi or Laiqeldar came to Ossiriand at length after many wanderings and long sojourns in diverse places. It is told that a company of the Noldoli under Dan forsook the host of Finwë early in the march and turned south, but again finding the lands barren and dark turned north, and they came about 2700 over Eredlindon under Denithor son of Dan, and dwelt to Ossiriand, and they were allies of Thingol.
The name Denithor is an emendation, probably of Denilos (see note 18).
15 This second entry for 2900 was written after the first was changed to 2700 (see note 9, and the note on dates below).
16 This passage was emended and extended thus to pencil:
... robbed them of their treasure. But Morgoth hid himself in the North of the land, as was known only to Finwë and Fëanor, who dwelt now apart.
2950 The Gods sent to apprehend Morgoth, but he fled over the mountains into Arvalin, and plotted evil for a long while, gathering the strength of darkness into him.
The date 2950 earlier in the paragraph was struck out at the same time.
17 Added here to pencil: This reward got Finwë for his friendship.
18 Added here in ink:
Then fear came into Beleriand, and Thingol made his mansions in Menegroth, and Melian wove magics of the Valar about the land of Doriath, and the most of the Elves of Beleriand withdrew within its protection, save some that lingered in the western havens, Brithombar and Eglorest, beside the Great Seas.
To this was added, in faint and hasty pencil:
and the remnant of the Green-elves of Ossiriand behind the rivers and the might of Ulmo. But Thingol with his ally Denilos of the Green-elves kept the Orcs for a while from the South. But at length Denilos son of Dan was slain, and Thingol
Here the pencilled note ends abruptly. Above -los of Denilos at the first occurrence is an alternative reading, illegible, but in view of Denithor probably < Denilos in note 14, no doubt -thor.
19 Noldoli emended from Gnomes at the time of writing.
20 Added here in pencil: Here endeth that which Rúmil wrote. See p. 348.
21 Added here in ink: with all his folk and no others save Orodreth, Angrod, and Egnor, whom Celegorm and Curufin loved;
22 Added here in pencil: but he... duel and Fëanor fell wrapped in fire.
23 Fingolfin and the sons of Finrod emended in ink to Fingolfin and Felagund (cf. note 21).
24 Added here in pencil: for they had tarried long in despair upon the shores of the West. The next sentence begins: And these...
25 Added here in pencil: But the Moon was the first to set sail.
26 Sun-rise written in pencil above Dawn.
27 Dor-Daideloth is an emendation in ink of (almost certainly) Dor-Daidelos; cf. the Ambarkanta map V, and p. 307.
28 This sentence emended in pencil to read: Then being wary of the wiles of Morgoth they turned unto Mithrim, that the Shadowy Mountains should be their guard. But little love...
29 Added in pencil: of Middle-earth.
§ 维林诺编年史·修改 §
Note on changes made to the dates
Dates in the period up to the Valian Year
(i) Dates in the period up to the Valian Year 2200
The mention of the Noontide of the Blessed Realm was displaced (notes 6 and 10) in order to date the starmaking and other events earlier than 2000. The beginning of the starmaking was then dated 1900 (note 6), and against At the first shining of the Sickle of the Gods was written in the date 1950. Against the march of the Elves led by Oromë was written in 1980-1990; and against the arrival of the Quendi (Lindar) and Noldoli in Valinor 2000.
In the sentence But the Teleri who came after abode an age
(100 Valian Years) upon the shores of Beleriand the words an age were struck out, 100 changed to 10, and the dates 2000-2010 written in. In the sentence This is the Valian Years 2000 to 2100 the second date was likewise changed to 2010.
In the concluding part of the period, by pencilled changes perhaps later than the foregoing, the dates of the dwelling of the Teleri on Tol Eressëa, originally 2100 to 2200, were changed to 2010 to 2110; and the coming of the Teleri to Valinor in 2200 was changed to 2111. The result of these changes may be shown in a table:
Original After Annals changes
2000 1900 Making of the stars by Varda begun
1950 Making of the Sickle of the Gods (end of the starmaking)
1980-1990 March of the Elves 2000 2000 Noontide of the Blessed Realm
2000 Coming of the first two kindreds of the Elves to Valinor
2000-2100 2000-2010 Teleri on the shores of Beleriand
2100-2200 2010-2110 Teleri dwelling in Tol Eressëa
2200 2111 Coming of the Teleri to Valinor
Dates in the period from the Valian Year 2900
(ii) Dates in the period from the Valian Year 2900
The year 2900, in which Morgoth sued for pardon, was changed to 2700, following the change in the length of his imprisonment from nine to seven ages (900 to 700 Valian Years) made earlier (note 9). These changes must have been made while the Annals were in progress, in view of the second entry for 2900 that follows in the text as written, During two more ages Valinor abode yet in bliss, i. e. two more ages from the
emended date, 2700, when Morgoth sued for pardon and was released.
For the shifting of the date 2950 see note 16.
Almost all the dates from 2990-1 to the end were emended in pencil, and the results are best set out in a table. (The dates given in the text as 2992 to 2995 are themselves emendations in ink, apparently in each case advancing the date by one year from that originally written. )
The sentence Thus about 2992 of Valian Years (p. 316) was changed to Thus in the dread Year of the Valar 2999 (29991 S. Y. ), where S. Y. = Sun Year; cf. the opening of the Annals, where it is explained that a Valian Year was equal to ten years ‘now’, i. e. of the Sun.
It will be seen that the effect of the later pencilled changes given in the table below was to speed up events from the Battle of Alqualondë to the landing of Fingolfin in Middle-earth, so that they extend over only a single Valian Year. In the passage giving the reckoning of the First Ages of the World (p. 319), over nine in Two Thousand save nine were Years of the Trees my father wrote one; this one year is the dread Year of the Valar 2999.
In this table, only actual pencilled changes made to the dates are recorded. The change of 2991 to 2998-3000 is intended to cover all that follows, or refers only to the beginning of the entry: Valinor now lay in great gloom, and darkness... fell on all the World.
Original Annals After changes
(Valian Years) (Valian (Sun
2900-1 Destruction of the Trees 2998 and escape of Morgoth
2991 Rebellion of Fëanor 2998-3000
2992 Preparation for the Flight 2999 of the Noldoli
2992 The Battle of Alqualondë 2999 29991
Original Annals After changes
(Valian Years) (Valian (Sun
2993 The Doom of Mandos 29992
2994 The Noldoli in the far 29994 North; the burning of the ships
2995 The landing of the 29995 Fëanorians and the encampment in Mithrim
2996 The Battle under Stars and Date struck out the death of Fëanor
2997 Capture of Maidros 29996
2998 Maidros hung from Thangorodrim
3000 Landing of Fingolfin
Commentary on the Annals of Valinor
In the preamble to the Annals of Valinor (AV) we meet one Pengolod the Wise of Gondolin, who dwelt at Tavrobel in Tol Eressëa ‘after his return unto the West’. Pengolod (or Pengoloð) often appears later, but nothing more is told of his history (the reference to Sirion's Haven shows that he was one of those who escaped from Gondolin with Tuor and Idril). I am much inclined to think that his literary origin is to be found in Gilfanon of the Lost Tales, who also lived at Tavrobel (which now first emerges again); there Eriol stayed in his house (‘the house of a hundred chimneys'), and Gilfanon bade him write down all that he had heard (II. 283), while in the preamble to AV Eriol saw Pengolod’s book at Tavrobel and translated it there. Moreover Gilfanon was of the Noldoli, and though in the Lost Tales he is not associated with Gondolin he
was an Elf of Kôr, ‘being indeed one of the oldest of the fairies and the most aged that now dwelt in the isle’, and had lived long in the Great Lands (I. 175); while Pengolod was also an Elf whose life began in Valinor, since he ‘returned’ into the West.
It is not clear whether the ascription of both sets of Annals to Pengolod of Tavrobel, where Ælfwine/Eriol translated them, is a departure from or is congruent with the title of the Quenta (p. 94), in which Eriol is said to have read the Golden Book (Parma Kuluina) in Kortirion. In the early notes and outlines there are different conceptions of the Golden Book: see II. 287, 290-1, 310. On the explicit equation of Ælfwine and Eriol in the preamble to AV see p. 252.
On the later addition to AV (note 20) ‘Here endeth that which Rúmil wrote’ see pp. 348-9. Rúmil re-emerges from the Lost Tales also as the author of the Ambarkanta (p. 288).
In the opening passage of AV, and in the later alterations made to it, there are some developments in the composition and relations of the Valar. The Nine Valar are the same as the nine ‘chieftains of the Valar’ or the ‘Nine Gods' of the opening section in Q; and the association of the Valar with their spouses has undergone little change from the Lost Tales: Manwë and Varda, Aulë and Yavanna; Oromë and Vana; Tulkas and Nessa; Ossë and Uinen; Mandos and Nienna. But now Estë first appears, the spouse of Lórien (as is implied here by the arrangement of the passage, and as is expressly stated in the Old English version of AV, p. 340).
The ‘consanguinity’ of the Valar. In the Lost Tales Aulë and Yavanna Palúrien were the parents of Oromë (I. 67), and Nessa was Oromë's sister (I. 75). In the addition to AV given in note 1 Nessa is still the daughter of Yavanna; * as will appear subsequently (p. 349) Oromë was the son of Yavanna, but not of Aulë. In The Silmarillion (p. 29) Oromë and Nessa remain brother and sister, though their parentage is not stated.
Varda and Yavanna are said to be sisters in Q, as in AV; in
- In Q §6 (p. 120) Nessa is the daughter of Vana, though this statement was struck out (note 2).
Q Vana is a third sister, though apparently not so in AV, and she remains the younger sister of Yavanna in The Silmarillion (ibid).
Manwë and Melko are said in AV to be ‘brethren’ (cf. The Silmarillion p. 26: ‘Manwë and Melkor were brethren in the thought of Ilúvatar’), and Nienna is their sister; in The Silmarillion (p. 28) she is the sister of the Fëanturi, Mandos and Lórien.
If these sources are combined the fullest extension of the genealogy is therefore:
Only the sea-gods, Ulmo, and Ossë with Uinen, are not brought in.
By the emendation given in note 2 Vairë appears, and is clearly by the arrangement of the passage the spouse of Mandos, as she remained; and Nienna now becomes solitary, again as she remained. Of course it is altogether unclear what is really meant by the terms ‘brother’, ‘sister’, ‘mother’, ‘son’, ‘children’ in the context of the great Valar.
The term Valarindi has not occurred before; see further p. 350.
In what follows I relate my remarks to the dates of the Annals. In most respects this text (as originally written) is in harmony with the Quenta, and I notice only the relatively few and for the most part minor points in which they are not, or in which the Annals offer some detail that is absent from the Quenta (a great deal is of course found in the much longer Quenta that is omitted in the brief Annals).
Valian Year 500 The words ‘Morgoth destroyed by deceit the Lamps' indicates the story of his devising the pillars out of ice, as in the Ambarkanta (see pp. 292, 302).
Valian Year 2000 (later 1900, 1950) The making of the stars seems still to be thought of as accomplished by Varda at one and the same period, as in Q §2 (see p. 201). A later addition in AV (note 7) makes the Sickle of the Gods the last of Varda's works in the heavens, and thus the Elves awoke when the starmaking was concluded, as in The Silmarillion (p. 48); in S and Q they awoke ‘at the making of the stars'. The addition given in note 8 telling that the Elves were for this reason called ‘the children of the stars' is interesting; but later evidence shows that this was not yet the meaning of the name Eldar.
The Elves are said to have awoken ‘in the midmost of the World’; in S and Q Cuiviénen is ‘in the East’, ‘far in the East’, as in The Silmarillion. But I doubt that this is significant, in view of the placing of Kuiviénen on the Ambarkanta map IV (see insert), which could be referred to either as ‘in the East’ or as ‘in the midmost of the World’.
In S and Q there is no mention of the Elves who would not leave the Waters of Awakening (see p. 51); in AV there is at least a suggestion of them in the reference to ‘the most part’ of the Elves having followed Oromë. But the story of the three original ambassadors of the Elves is still absent (see p. 201).
In S and Q (§4) the length of Morgoth's imprisonment in the halls of Mandos was seven ages; in Q ‘seven’ was emended to ‘nine’, but this was then rejected (note 1); in AV ‘nine’ was emended to ‘seven’ (note 9). In The Silmarillion (p. 65) the number of ages is three.
The rending and sundering of the lands in the war that ended in the captivity of Morgoth is described in the Ambarkanta (see pp. 293, 304-6).
The term Quendi for the First Kindred is still used in AV as in Q, and as in Q was later changed to Lindar. The addition in note 13 makes it explicit that Thingol did not awake from his enchanted sleep until his people had passed over the Sea; so in the Tale of Tinúviel, II. 9: ‘Now when he awoke he thought no more of his people (and indeed it had been vain, for long now had those reached Valinor). ’ He is now the brother of Elwë Lord of the Teleri (cf. I. 120).
Valian Year 2200 (later 2111) The name Alqalondë (not in S and Q, where only the English name, Swanhaven or Haven of the Swans, is used) reappears from (Kópas) Alqaluntë of the Lost Tales; cf. Alflon on the Ambarkanta map V (p. 309; see also insert).
It is to be noticed that while the changing of the dates (p. 323) greatly reduced the time during which the Teleri dwelt on the coast of Beleriand (from 100 Valian Years to 10), it does not affect the length of their sojourn in Tol Eressëa, 100 Valian Years, equivalent to 1000 Years of the Sun (cf. Q §3: ‘Of this long sojourn apart came the sundering of the tongue of the Foamriders and the Elves of Valinor’).
Valian Year 2500 Wholly new is the matter of the pencilled addition given in note 14. My father was here working out the chronology at large, for there is no reason for this story to appear in Annals of Valinor. * It agrees with what is told in The Silmarillion (p. 54), save that Denethor's father is there Lenwë not Dan, and that these Elves came from the third host, the Teleri, not from the Noldor.
This is the first indication of the origin of the Green-elves, who have hitherto only appeared in association with Beren (see p. 74, and Q §14), and the first appearance of their Elvish names Laiqi or Laiqeldar (later Laiquendi). For earlier forms of Ossiriand see p. 287; the final form occurs also in emendations to Q (§§9, 10, 14). Eredlindon appears in a late addition to Q §9, note 3.
Valian Year 2900 (later 2700) In S and Q it is Tulkas and Ulmo who are opposed to the release of Morgoth, as in The Silmarillion (p. 66); in AV it is Tulkas and Aulë. In AV ap-
- It remained in the ‘tradition’ of these Annals, however, and is still present in the much later Annals of Aman (though there with a direction to transfer it to the Annals of Beleriand).
pears the intercession of Nienna on Morgoth's behalf, and this was retained in The Silmarillion (p. 65), though Nienna is no longer his sister.
Valian Year 2950 ‘The Dispossessed’, the name given to the House of Fëanor, has appeared in the Old English name Yrfeloran, p. 260.
I have noticed in my commentary on Q §4 that the later interpolation (note 6), telling that a messenger came to the Gods in council with tidings that Morgoth was in the North of Valinor and journeying to the house of Finwë, is the first hint of the story of Morgoth's going to Formenos and his speech with Fëanor before the doors. In AV also, as originally written, the northward movement of Morgoth was absent (he fled at once into Arvalin after the council of the Gods in which they deposed Fëanor and sent to apprehend Morgoth); but in the pencilled interpolation given in note 16 Morgoth ‘hid himself in the North of the land, as was known only to Finwë and Fëanor, who dwelt now apart’. It was then that the Gods sent to apprehend him, though no explanation is given of how they knew where he was; but the story now becomes structurally the same as that in The Silmarillion (p. 72), where it was only when Finwë sent messengers to Valmar saying that Morgoth had come to Formenos that Oromë and Tulkas went after him.
Valian Years 2990-1 The addition given in note 17, ‘This reward got Finwë for his friendship’, refers, I think, to the relations between Morgoth and the Noldoli before his exposure. This seems much more likely than that Morgoth actually succeeded in cozening the Noldoli in exile in the North of Valinor, that they formed an alliance with him.
It is remarkable that according to the revised dating no less than 48 Valian Years (2950-2998), that is 480 Years of the Sun, elapsed between Morgoth's flight into Arvalin and the destruction of the Trees.
The insertion (in two instalments) given in note 18 introduces further new history of the ‘Dark Ages' of Middle-earth. The Havens on the coast of Beleriand were marked in later on the Westward Extension of the first map (see insert), where they are named Brithombar and Eldorest (see p. 281). Now appears also the withdrawal of the Elves of Beleriand behind the Girdle of Melian; cf. The Silmarillion, pp. 96-7: ‘[Thingol] withdrew all his people that his summons could reach within the fastness of Neldoreth and Region. ’ The name Menegroth of the Thousand Caves has not occurred before.
The incomplete pencilled addition is the first hint of the battle of the Elves of Beleriand with the Orcs after Morgoth's return (‘the first battle in the Wars of Beleriand’, The Silmarillion p. 96), in which Denethor was slain.
Valian Year 2992 (later 2999) In the account of the Flight of the Noldoli there is a suggestion, in the words ‘The march began, though the Gods forbade (and yet hindered not)’, of the speech of the messenger of Manwë as the march began in The Silmarillion (p. 85): ‘Go not forth!... No aid will the Valar lend you in this quest, but neither will they hinder you. ’
Valian Year 2993 (later Sun Year 29992) More is now told of the content of the Prophecy of Mandos, in particular as it concerns the altered fate of the Noldoli who would not turn back from their rebellion. In Q (§5) nothing is said of this, and the curse, as reported, is restricted to the doom of treachery and the fear of treachery among themselves; but in a later passage (§7), which goes back to S and indeed to the Lost Tales (see p. 60), it is told that
Immortal were the Elves, and... no sickness or pestilence brought them death. But they could be slain by weapons in those days... and some waned and wasted with sorrow till they faded from the earth.
In AV the Doom of Mandos foretells that
a measure of mortality should visit them [the House of Fëanor and those who followed them], that they should be lightly slain with weapons, or torments, or sorrow, and in the end fade and wane before the younger race.
At first sight this seems at odds with the story as it stands, where Finwë and many other Elves had already been slain by Morgoth, who thus ‘began slaughter in the world’; ‘a measure of mortality’ was their fate in any case. But it may be that the word ‘lightly’ is to be given full weight, and that the meaning is that the Noldoli will be less resistant to death that comes in these ways. In The Silmarillion (p. 88) Mandos or his emissary said:
For though Eru appointed you to die not in Eä, and no sickness may assail you, yet slain ye may be, and slain ye shall be: by weapon and by torment and by grief.
This I take to mean, in effect: ‘Do not forget that, though you are immortal in that you cannot die through sickness, you can nonetheless be slain in other ways; and you will indeed now die in such ways abundantly. ’
The waning of the Elves now becomes an element in the Doom of Mandos; on this see p. 206.
The statement in AV that when Finrod and many others returned to Valinor and were pardoned by the Gods ‘Aulë their ancient friend smiled on them no more’ is interesting. It does not appear in The Silmarillion, where nothing is said of the reception of Finarfin (Finrod) and those who came with him on their return beyond the fact that ‘they received the pardon of the Valar, and Finarfin was set to rule the remnant of the Noldor in the Blessed Realm’ (p. 88); but it is to be related to a passage in the old Tale of the Sun and Moon (I. 176) in which Aulë’s peculiar anger against the Noldoli for their ingratitude and for the Kinslaying is described.
The alliances and friendships between the princes of the Noldoli in the third generation have been touched on in S and Q §5, where Orodreth, Angrod, and Egnor, sons of Finrod, sided with the Fëanorians in the debate in Tûn before the Flight of the Noldoli; in AV this becomes a friendship especially with Celegorm and Curufin, and is no doubt to be related to the evolution of the Nargothrond legend.
Valian Year 2994 (later Sun Year 29994) The friendship of Celegorm and Curufin with Orodreth, Angrod, and Egnor just referred to leads to the remarkable development (in the addition given in note 21) that these three sons of Finrod were actually allowed passage in the ships by the Fëanorians, and that only Felagund came over the Helkaraksë with Fingolfin (note 23). This story if adhered to would presumably have affected the further evolution of the history of the Noldor in Beleriand. In The Silmarillion the only especial relationship of friendship between any of the sons of Fëanor and their cousins (apart from that with Aredhel Fingolfin's daughter) is that between Maedhros and Fingon; and Maedhros, not perceiving that his father meant to burn the ships, proposed that Fingon be among the first of the other Noldor to be brought over in a second journey (p. 90).
Valian Year 2995 (later Sun Year 29995) Here the firth of Drengist is named for the first time in the narrative texts (it occurs in the list of Old English names, p. 257, but is not named on the Westward Extension of the first map); Eredlómin has the later sense of the Echoing Mountains (see pp. 233-4, 272); and Mithrim is used not only of the Lake but of the region about the Lake, and the Mountains of Mithrim are mentioned for the first time (see p. 272, entry Hithlum). The encampment of the Fëanorians by Lake Mithrim now precedes the Battle under Stars.
Valian Year 2996 (date later struck out) The first battle of the returning Noldor with the Orcs is now fought in Mithrim, not on the Northern plain (Q §8), and the plain at last receives an Elvish name, Bladorion, referring to the time when it was still grassland (with Bladorion perhaps compare Bladorwen ‘the wide earth’, a name of Yavanna given in the old Gnomish dictionary, I. 264, entry Palúrien). The Orcs are pursued into Bladorion and Fëanor is wounded there, but dies in Mithrim. The name Battle under Stars is added in Q §8, note 2, but this is the first occurrence of an Elvish name, Dagor-os-Giliath (later Dagor-nuin-Giliath). Eredwethion replaces, in the text as written, Eredlómin as the Elvish name of the Shadowy Mountains (previously it is found only in later alterations, Q II§15, note 1, and on the first map; see p. 272).
Valian Year 2997 (later Sun Year 29996) A new element in AV is the condition which Morgoth proposed for the release of Maidros.
Valian Year 3000 Here is introduced the story that Fingolfin after landing in Middle-earth marched even to Angband and beat on the gates, but (in the emendation given in note 28) being prudent retreated to Mithrim; and although in S and Q §8 it is already told that the two hosts of the Noldor were encamped on opposing shores of Lake Mithrim, it is now added that the Fëanorians removed to the southern shore when Fingolfin came.
On the phrase ‘after came measured time into the World’ see Q §6 note 6, and pp. 205-6.
With ‘the Pennas or Qenta’ cf. the title of Q (p. 94): Qenta Noldorinwa or Pennas-na-Ngoelaidh.
§ 维林诺编年史·评论 §
（= =|||维林诺编年史 the Annals of Valinor，简称AV= =|||，书里原话，肝完年表我就删了这句。）
§ 维林诺编年史·附录 §
Old English versions of the Annals of Valinor, made by Ælfwine or Eriol
The first version given here is certainly the oldest, and is perhaps earlier than the Modern English Annals. A few late pencilled alterations or suggestions are given in the notes.
Þéos gesegen wearþ ǽrest on bócum gesett of Pengolode þám Úþwitan of Gondoline ǽr þám þe héo abrocen wurde, 7 siþþan æt Sirigeones Hýþe, 7 æt Tafrobele on Toleressean (þæt is Ánetíge), æfter þám þe he eft west cóm; 7 héo wearþ þær gerǽdd 5 and geþíedd of Ælfwine, þám þe ielfe Eriol genemdon.
Frumsceaft Hér ǽrest worhte Ilúfatar, þæt is Ealfæder oþþe Heofonfæder oþþe Beorhtfæder, eal þing.
D géara þára Falar (þæt is þára Mihta oþþe Goda): án 10 géar þára Goda bið swá lang swá tíen géar béoð nú on þǽre worolde arímed æfter þǽre sunnan gange. Melco (þæt is Orgel) oþþe Morgoþ (þæt is Sweart-ós) oferwearp þára Goda Blácern, 7 þá Godu west gecirdon híe, and híe þær Valinor þæt is 15 Godéþel geworhton.
M Hér þá Godu awehton þá Twégen Béamas, Laurelin (þæt is Goldléoþ) 7 Silpion (þæt is Glisglóm).
MM Godéðles Middæg oþþe Héahþrymm. Hér bléowon
þá Béamas þúsend géara; ond Varda (héo wæs 20 gydena æþelust) steorran geworhte; for þám hátte héo Tinwetári Steorrena Hlǽfdige. Hér onwócon Ielfe on Éastlandum; 7 se Melco wearð gefangen 7 on clústre gebunden; 7 siððan cómon ielfa sume on Godéðel. 25
MM oþ MMC Hér wearð Tún, séo hwíte burg, atimbred on munte Córe. Þá Telere gewunodon gíet on þam weststrandum þára Hiderlanda; ac se Teler Þingol wearð on wuda begalen.
MMC oþ MMCC Wunodon þá Telere on Ánetíge. 30 MMCC Hér cómon þá Telere oþ Godéðel.
MMD Hér þurh searucræftas aþóhton and beworhton þá Nold-ielfe gimmas missenlice, 7 Féanor Noldena hláford worhte þá Silmarillas, þæt wǽron Eorclanstánas. 35
MM oþ MMDCCCC Hæftnýd Morgoðes.
MMDCCCC Hér wearð Morgoþ alýsed, 7 he wunode on Godéðle, 7 lícette þæt he hold wǽre Godum 7 Ielfum.
MMCCCCXCIX Hér ofslóh Morgoð þá Béamas ond 40 oþfléah, 7 ætferede mid him þára Elfa gimmas 7 þá Eorclanstánas. Siþþan forléton þá Noldelfe hiera hyldo, and éodon on elþéodignes, 7 gefuhton wið þá Telere æt Elfethýðe 7 sige námon 7 ætferedon þa Teleriscan scipu. 45
Hér wearð micel gesweorc 7 genipu on Godéðle 7 ofer ealne middangeard. Þá hwíle endníwede Morgoð his ealde fæsten on þám Norþdǽlum, and getrymede micle, and orcas gegaderode, and þa Eorclanstánas on his irenhelme befæste. 50
Þá fór Féanor mid his seofon sunum and micelre fierde norþ 7 þá siglde on Teleriscum scipum to þám Weststrandum, and þǽr forbærndon híe þa scipu ond aswicon hiera geféran þe on lást síðodon.
Hér gefeaht Féanores fierd wiþ þam orcum 7 sige 55 námon 7 þá orcas gefliemdon oþ Angband (þæt is Irenhelle); ac Goðmog, Morgoðes þegn, ofslóh Féanor, and Mægdros gewéold siþþan Féanores folc. Þis gefeoht hátte Tungolgúð.
NOTES Textual Notes to Version I
All the following changes, except that in line 9, were made very quickly in pencil and without striking out the original forms; they belong to a much later period, as is shown by the fact that Melkor for Melko was not introduced until 1951.
2 Pengolode > Pengoloðe
2 Gondoline > Gondolinde
4 Tafrobele > (probably) Taþrobele (see p. 344 note to
line 8, and p. 347 note to line 7). 6 Eriol > Ereol 10 Falar is an emendation in ink of Valar.
13 Melco > Melcor (but not at line 23)
14 Blácern > Léohtfatu
16 Godéþel > Ésa-eard (ésa genitive plural of ós, see p. 255)
Old English Names in Version I
Far less use is made of Old English equivalents than is provided for in the lists given on pp. 255-61; so we have Gondoline with an Old English inflectional ending (not Stángaldorburg, etc. ), Nold(i)elfe, also genitive plural Noldena (not Déopelfe, etc. ), Féanor, Mægdros, Goðmog, on munte Córe. Old English equivalents, used or only mentioned, are mostly actual translations. Thus Melco is Orgel (‘Pride’); Morgoð is Sweart-ós (‘Black God’, ‘Dark God’, see II. 67); Laurelin is Goldléoþ (‘Gold-song’, ‘Song of Gold’—cf. the translation ‘singing-gold’ in the name-list to The Fall of Gondolin, II. 216, and contrast Glengold imitating Glingol, pp. 257-8); Silpion is Glisglóm (of which the elements are evidently the stem glis- seen in the verbs glisian, glisnian ‘shine, glitter’, and glóm ‘twilight’); Alqalondë is Elfethýð (‘Swanhaven’)*; Tol Eressëa is Ánetíg (‘Solitary Isle’); the Battle-under-Stars is Tungolgúð (‘Star-battle’). Irenhell for Angband and Godéðel (‘Land of the Gods') for Valinor are found in the list of Old English names.
The Silmarils are Eorclanstánas (also treated as an Old English noun with plural Silmarillas). There are several different forms of this Old English word: eorclan-, eorcnan-, earcnan-, and eorcan- from which is derived the ‘Arkenstone’ of the Lonely Mountain. The first element may be related to Gothic airkns ‘holy’. With middangeard line 47 cf. my father's note in Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings, in A Tolkien Compass, p. 189: ‘The sense is “the inhabited lands of (Elves and) Men”, envisaged as lying between the Western Sea and that of the Far East (only known in the West by rumour). Middle-earth is a modern alteration of medieval middel-erde from Old English middan-geard. ’
Varda's name Tinwetári, Queen of the Stars, goes back to
This Old English name (with variant initial vowel, Ielfethýþ) is found long before in a marginal note to Kópas Alqaluntë in the tale of The Flight of the Noldoli, I. 164, footnote.
the tale of The Chaining of Melko (I. 100), and is found also in Q §2.
Dates in Version I
The date MMDCCCCXCIX (written with M for MM, as also the two occurrences of MMDCCCC, but these are obviously mere slips without significance), 2999, does not agree with that in the Modern English version for the destruction of the Two Trees and the rape of the Silmarils, which are there given under 2990-1.
This text relates very closely indeed to the Modern English version. There are slight differences of substance between them here and there, and some of the emendations made to the modern version are embodied in the Old English text; these points are mentioned in the notes, as also are some details concerning the dates and some features of the names.
The text was lightly emended in pencil, but these changes are almost without exception modifications of word-order or other slight syntactical changes, and all such I take into the text silently. It breaks off abruptly at the beginning of the annal entry equivalent to 2991 with the words ‘Valinor lay now’; these are not at the foot of a page, and none of the text has been lost.
At first sight it is puzzling that in the preamble the Annals of Valinor are called Pennas, since the Pennas or Quenta (see pp. 250-1) is clearly intended to represent a different literary tradition from the Annals, or at least a different mode of presenting the material. The preamble goes on to say, however, that this book Pennas is divided into three parts: the first part is Valinórelúmien, that is Godéðles géargetæl (i. e. Annals of Valinor); the second is Beleriandes géargetæl (i. e. Annals of Beleriand); and the third is Quenta Noldorinwa or Pennas nan Goelið, that is Noldelfaracu (the History of the Noldorin Elves). Thus, here at any rate, Pennas (Quenta) is used in both a stricter and a wider sense: the whole opus that Ælfwine translated in Tol Eressëa is the Pennas (Quenta), ‘the History’, but the term is also used more narrowly of the Pennas nan Goelið or Quenta Noldorinwa, which may be thought of as ‘the Silmarillion proper’, as opposed to the ‘Annals'. In fact, in an addition to the very brief Old English version III of the Annals of Valinor (p. 347, note to line 5) it is expressly said: ‘This third part is also called Silmarillion, that is the history of the Eorclanstánas [Silmarils]. ’
Her onginneð séo bóc þe man Pennas nemneð, 7 héo is on þréo gedǽled; se forma dǽl is Valinórelúmien þæt is Godéðles géargetæl, 7 se óþer is Beleriandes géargetæl, 7 se þridda Quenta Noldorinwa oþþe Pennas nan Goelið þæt 5 is Noldelfaracu. Þás ǽrest awrát Pengolod se Úþwita of Gondoline, ǽr þám þe héo abrocen wurde, 7 siþþan æt Siriones hýþe 7 æt Tavrobele in Toleressean (þæt is Ánetége), þá he eft west cóm. And þás béc Ælfwine of Angelcynne 10 geseah on Ánetége, þá þá he æt sumum cerre funde híe; 7 he geleornode híe swa he betst mihte 7 eft geþéodde 7 on Englisc ásette.
Hér onginneð Godéðles géargetæl.
On frumsceafte Ilúuvatar, þæt is Ealfæder, gescóp eal þing, 7 þá Valar, þæt is þá Mihtigan (þe sume 15 menn siþþan for godu héoldon) cómon on þás worolde. Híe sindon nigon: Manwë, Ulmo, Aule, Orome, Tulkas, Mandos, Lórien, Melko. Þára wǽron Manwë 7 Melko his bróþor ealra mihtigoste, ac Manwë wæs se yldra, 7 wæs Vala-hláford 7 20 hálig, 7 Melko béah to firenlustum and úpahæfennesse and oferméttum and wearþ yfel and unmǽðlic, and his nama is awergod and unasprecenlic, ac man nemneð hine Morgoð in Noldelfisc-gereorde. Þa Valacwéne hátton swá: 25 Varda 7 Geauanna, þe gesweostor wǽron, Manwes cwén 7 Aules cwén; 7 Vana Oromes cwén; 7 Nessa Tulkases cwén (séo wæs Oromes sweostor); 7 Uinen, merecwén, Osses wíf; 7 Vaire Mandosses cwén, 7 Este Lóriendes cwén. Ac Ulmo 7 Melko 30 næfdon cwéne, 7 Nienna séo geómore næfde wer. Mid þissum geférum cómon micel héap lǽsra gesceafta, Valabearn, oþþe gǽstas Valacynnes þe lǽsse mægen hæfdon. Þás wæron Valarindi.
And þá Valar ǽr þam þe Móna 7 Sunne wurden 35 gerímdon tíde be langfirstum oþþe ymbrynum, þe wǽron hund Valagéara on geteald; 7 án Valagéar wæs efne swá lang swá tén géar sindon nú on worolde.
D On þám Valagéare D mid searucræfte fordyde 40 Morgoþ þa blácern, þe Aule smiþode, þætte séo weorold mid sceolde onleohted weorðan; 7 þá Valar, búton Morgoþe ánum, gecerdon híe West, and þær getimbredon Valinor (þæt is Godéðel) be sǽm twéonum (þæt is betwuh Útgársecge þe ealle 45 eorðan bebúgeð, and séo micle Westsǽ, þæt is Gársecg, oþþe Ingársecg, oþþe Belegar on Noldelfísce; 7 on Westsǽs strandum gehéapodon hie micle beorgas. And middangear[d]es rihtgesceap wearþ on þám dagum ǽrest of Morgoðe onhwerfed. 50
M Hér, æfter þam þe Valinor wearð getimbrod, 7 Valmar þæt is Godaburg, gescópon 7 onwehton þá Valar þá Twégen Béamas, óþerne of seolfre óþerne of golde geworhtne, þe hira léoma onléohte Valinor. Ac Morgoþ búde on middangearde and geworhte 55 tim þǽr micel fæsten on norþdǽlum; and on þǽre tíde forbræc he and forsceóp he micle eorðan 7 land. Siþþan wearþ þúsend géara blǽd 7 bliss on Godéþle, ac on middangearde þá wæstmas, þe be þára blácerna ontendnesse ǽr ongunnon 60 úpaspringan, amerde wurdon. To middangearde cóm þára Vala nán bútan Orome, þe oft wolde huntian on þǽre firnan eorðan be deorcum wealdum, 7 lauannan þe hwílum fór þider.
MM Þis gar biþ Valances Middæg oþþe Heah- 65 þrymm geteald, 7 þá wæs Goda myrgþu gefullod. Þá geworhte Varda steorran 7 sette híe on lyfte (7 þý hátte héo Tinwetári, þæt is Tungolcwén), and sóna æfter þam of Godéþle wandrodon Valarindi sume 7 cómon on middangeard, and þára gefrǽgost 70 wearð Melian, þe wæs ǽr Lóriendes híredes, 7 hire stefn wæs mǽre mid Godum: ac héo ne cóm eft to Godabyrig ǽr þon þe fela géara oferéodon and fela wundra gelumpon, ac nihtegalan wǽron hire geféran 7 sungon ymb híe be þám deorcum wudum 75 on westdǽlum.
Þá þá þæt tungol, þe gefyrn Godasicol oþþe Brynebrér hátte, líxte ǽrest forþ on heofonum, for þam þe Varda hit asette Morgoþe on andan him his hryre to bodianne, þá onwócon þá yldran 80 Ealfæderes beam on middan worolde: þæt sindon Elfe. Híe funde Orome and wearþ him fréondhald, and þára se mǽsta dǽl siþþan West fóron him on láste and mid his latteowdóme sohton Beleriandes weststrand, for þám þe Godu híe laþodon on 85 Valinor.
Þá wearþ Morgoþ ǽr mid micle heregange forhergod and gebunden and siþþan æt Mandosse on cwearterne gedón. Þǽr wearð he wítefæst seofon firstmearce (þæt is seofon hund Valagéara) oþ þæt 90 he dǽdbétte and him forgifennesse bǽde. On þám gefeohtum éac wurdon eorðan land eft forbrocen swíðe 7 forscapen.
Þá Cwendi (þæt wǽron Léohtelfe) and þá Noldelfe sohton ǽrest to lande on Valinor, 7 on 95 þám grénan hylle Córe þám sǽriman néah getimbrodon híe Tún þá hwítan Elfaburg; ac þá Teleri, þe síþ cómon on Beleriand, gebidon áne firstmearce þǽr be strande, and sume híe ne fóron þanon siþþan nǽfre. Þára wæs Þingol géfrǽgost, 100 Elwes bróðor, Teleria hláfordes: hine Melian begól. Híe hæfde he siþþan to wífe, and cyning wearð on Beleriande; ac þæt gelamp æfter þám þe Ulmo oflǽdde Teleria þone mǽstan dǽl on Ánetíge, and bróhte híe swá to Valinor. Þás þing wurdon on þám 105 Valagéarum MM oþ MMC.
Of MMC oþ MMCC - wunodon þá Teleri on Toleressean onmiddum Ingársecge, þanon híe mihton Valinor feorran ofséon; on MMCC cómon híe mid micelre scipferde to Valinore, and þǽr 110 gewunodon on éastsǽriman Valinores, and geworhton þǽr burg and hýþe, and nemdon híe Alqualonde, þæt is Elfethýþ, for þǽm þe hie þǽr hira scipu befæston, 7 þá wǽron ielfetum gelíc.
Þæs ymb þréo hund sumera, oþþe má oþþe lǽs, 115 aþóhton þá Noldelfe gimmas and ongunnon híe asmiþian, and siþþan Féanor se smiþ, Finwes yldesta sunu Nol[d]elfa hláfordes, aþóhte and geworhte þá felamǽran Silmarillas, þe þéos gesægen fela áh to secganne be hira wyrdum. Híe 120 lixton mid hira ágenum léohte, for þám þe híe wǽron gefylde þára twégra Béama léomum, þe wurdon þǽroninnan geblanden and to hálgum and wundorfyllum fýre gescapen.
MMDCC Hér Morgoþ dǽdbétte and him forgefennesse 125 bæd; ond be Niennan þingunga his sweostor him Manwë his bróðor áre getéah, Tulkases unþance and Aules, and hine gelésde; 7 he lícette þæt he hréowsode 7 éaðmód wǽre, and þám Valum gehérsum and þám elfum swíþe hold; ac he léah, 130 and swíþost he bepǽhte þá Noldelfe, for þám þe he cúþe fela uncúþra þinga lǽran; he gítsode swáþéah hira gimma and hine langode þá Siknarillas. MMCM Þurh twá firstmearce wunode þá gíet Valinor
on blisse, ac twéo 7 inca awéox swáþéah manigum 135 on heortan swulce nihtsceadu náthwylc, for þam þe Morgoþ fór mid dernum rúnungum and searolicum lygum, and yfelsóþ is to secganne, swíþost he onbryrde þá Noldelfe and unsibbe awehte betwux Finwes sunum, Féanor and Fingolfin and Finrod, 140 and ungeþwǽrnes betwux Godum 7 elfum.
MMCMD Be Goda dóme wearþ Féanor, Finwes yldesta sunu, mid his hírede 7 folgoþe adón of Noldelfa ealdordóme—þý hátte siþþan Féanores cynn þá Erfeloran, for þám dóme 7 for þý pe Morgoþ 145 beréafode híe hira máþma—7 þá Godu ofsendon Morgoþ to démanne hine; ac he ætfléah 7 darode on Arualine and beþóhte hine yfel.
MMCMD - Hér Morgoþ fullfremede his searowrencas MMCMDI sóhte Ungoliante on Arualine and bæd híe 150 fultumes. Þa bestǽlon híe eft on Valinor 7 þá Béamas forspildon, and siþþan ætburston under þám weaxendum sceadum and fóron norþ and þǽr hergodon Féanores eardunge and ætbǽron gimma unrím and þá Silmarillas mid ealle, 7 Morgoþ 155 ofslóh þǽr Finwe 7 manige his elfe mid him and awídlode swá Valinor ǽrest mid blódgyte and morþor astealde on worolde. He þá fléame generede his feorh, þéah þe þá Godu his éhton wíde landes, siþþan becóm he on middangeardes norþdǽlas and 160 geedstaðelode þǽr his fæsten, and fédde and samnode on níwe his yfele þéowas, ge Balrogas ge orcas. Þá cóm micel ege on Beleriand, 7 Þingol his burgfæsten getrymede on Menegroþ þæt is þúsend þéostru, and Melian séo cwén mid Vala-gealdrum 165 begól þæt land Doriaþ and bewand hit ymbútan, and siþþan sohton se mǽsta dǽl þára deorc-elfa of Beleriande Þingoles munde.
MMCMI Hér læg Valinor on NOTES TO VERSION II
6 Noldelfaracu emended in ink from Noldelfagesǽgen. 8 Tavrobele > (probably) Tafrobele, in pencil. In version I Tafrobele probably > Taþrobele, and in version III Taþrobele as written, but in this case the emendation seems clearly to be to f; this would be a mere spelling-correction (f being the Old English spelling for the voiced consonant [v] in this position). 15-16 This phrase (þe sume menn siþþan for godu héoldon) is not in the Modern English version, but cf. the opening section of Q (p. 94): ‘These spirits the Elves named the Valar, which is the Powers, though Men have often called them Gods. ’
17 Ossë has been inadvertently omitted.
20 It is not said in the Modern English version that Manwë was the elder.
26 Geauanna: this spelling would represent ‘Yavanna’ in Old English. At line 64 the name is spelt Iauanna(n), and in the Old English version of the Quenta (p. 253) Yavanna; in version III Geafanna (p. 347). 29-31 The text here embodies the sense of the pencilled emendation to the Modern English version (p. 320 note 2) whereby Vairë enters as the spouse of Mandos and Nienna becomes solitary. At line 31, after nœfde wer, was added in pencil: Séo wœs Manwes sweostor 7 Morgoðes; this is stated in the Modern English version as written.
45-7 Útgársecg, Gársecg, Ingársecg: see pp. 255, 256. —Belegar: see p. 256; see also insert.
49 middangeardes: see p. 337.
52 Valmar is Godaburg in the list of Old English names,
65-7 The changes made to the text of the Modem English version, in order to date the Star-making and the Awakening of the Elves before 2000 (see pp. 320-1, notes 6 and 10) are not embodied in the Old English.
71 The statement that Melian was of Lórien's people is not in the Modern English version, but is found in S and Q (§2) and goes back to the Tale of Tinúviel (II. 8): ‘[Wendelin] was a sprite that escaped from Lórien's gardens before even Kôr was built. ’ 78 Brynebrér (‘Burning Briar’): this name for the Great Bear, not found in the Modern English version, occurs in Q (§2) and in the Lay of Leithian.
89-90 seofon firstmearce, not ‘nine ages' as first written in the Modern English version (p. 321 note 9). firstmearce (‘spaces of time’) is an emendation made at the time of writing from langfirstas (one of the words used for Valian ‘ages' earlier, line 36). 94 Cwendi emended in pencil first to Eldar and then to Lindar; Quendi > Lindar also in Q (§2 and subsequently) and in the modern version. —Léohtelfe is not one of the Old English names of the First Kindred given in the list on pp. 255ff., but they are called Light-elves in S and Q (§2; see p. 51).
104 Ánetíge spelt thus, as in version I line 4; Ánetége lines 9 and 11.
108 Ingársecge < Gársecge (see lines 45-7).
125 For the date 2700 see note to lines 89-90 above, and the note on dates, p. 322.
145 Erfeloran (‘the Dispossessed’), with variant initial vowel Yrfeloran, is found in the list of Old English names of the Fëanorians, p. 260.
149 These dates are presumably to be interpreted as 2950-1: in the previous entry (line 133) MMCMD corresponds to 2950 in the Modern English version. My father was here using D = 50, not 500. But 2950-1 does not correspond to the Modern English version, which has 2990-1. The discrepancy is perhaps no more than a mere error of writing (though version I is also discrepant in this date, having 2999); the date of the next entry, MMCMI (2901), is obviously an error, from its place in the chronological series.
163-8 This sentence represents part of the passage added to the Modern English version (p. 321 note 18), but omits the reference to the Elves who remained in Brithombar and Eglorest.
This version, on a single manuscript page, gives a slightly different form of the first twenty-odd lines of version II. It is much later than II, as is shown by Melkor, not Melko (see p. 282), but was nonetheless taken directly from it, as is shown by the continued absence of Ossë from the list of the Valar (see note to line 17 in version II). Later changes pencilled on version I are here embodied in the text (Pengoloð for Pengolod, Taþrobele for Tafrobele, Melkor for Melko).
Version III is cast in a different form of Old English, that of ninth century Mercia (some of the forms are peculiarly characteristic of the Mercian dialect represented by the interlinear glosses on the Vespasian Psalter). A few pencilled emendations are not included in the text, but recorded in the notes that follow.
Hér onginneð séo bóc þe man Pennas nemneð on ælfisc, 7 hío is on þréo gedǽled: se forma dǽl is Ualinórelúmien þæt is Godoeðles gérgetæl; 7 se óðer dǽl is Beleriandes gérgetæl; 7 se þridda Quenta Noldorinwa oððe Pennas na Ngoeloeð, þæt is Noldælfaracu. Þás bóc ǽrest awrát 5 Pengoloð se úðwita on Gondoline ǽr þám þe héo abrocen wurde 7 seoððan æt Siriones hýðe 7 æt Taþrobele on Tol-eressean (þæt is Ánetége), þá he eft west cóm. And þás béc Ælfwine of Ongulcynne gesæh on Ánetége ða ða he æt sumum cerre þæt land funde; 7 he ðær liornode híe 10 swá he betst mæhte 7 eft geþéodde 7 on englisc gereord ásette.
Hér onginneð Godoeðles gérgetæl, 7 spriceð ǽrest of weorulde gescefte. On frumscefte gescóp Ilúuatar þæt is Allfeder all þing, 7 þá þá séo weoruld ǽrest weorðan 15 ongon þá cómun hider on eorðan þá Ualar (þæt is þá Mehtigan þe sume men seoððan for godu héoldun). Hí earun nigun on ríme: Manwe, Ulmo, Aule, Orome, Tulcas, Mandos, Lórien, Melkor. Þeara wérun Manwe 7 Melcor his bróður alra mehtigoste, ac Manwe wes se 20 ældra 7 is Uala-hláfard 7 hálig, 7 Melcor béh to firenlustum 7 to úpahefennisse 7 ofermoettum 7 wearð yfel 7 unméðlic, 7 his noma is awergod 7 unasproecenlic, for þám man nemneð hine Morgoþ on Noldælfiscgereorde. Orome 7 Tulcas wérun gingran on 25 Alfeadur geþóhte acende ǽr þere weorulde gescepennisse þonne óðre fífe. Þá Uala-cwéne háttun swé: Uarda Manwes cwén, 7 Geafanna Aules cwén (þá þá he and híe wurdon to sinhíwan æfter þám þe Ualar hider cómon on weorulde). 30
NOTES TO VERSION III
2-4 Ualinórelúmien þæt is and Quenta Noldorinwa oððe
are circled in pencil as if for exclusion. 5 Added in pencil here: ‘and þes þridda dǽl man éac nemneð Silmarillion þæt is Eorclanstána gewyrd. ’ See p. 339.
5-6 on Gondoline is an emendation in ink from of Gondoline, i. e. Pengoloð began the work in Gondolin; but this is implied in the preambles to versions I and II, which have of Gondoline here. —Gondoline > Gondolinde in pencil, as in version I (note to line 2). 7 Taþrobele is very clearly written with þ; see p. 344 note to line 8.
18 Ossë is left out following version II.
19 Melkor > Melcor in ink at the second occurrence, no doubt at the time of writing, since Melcor is written at line 20.
25-7 The statement that Oromë and Tulkas ‘were younger in the thought of Ilúvatar’ is absent from the other versions (cf. The Silmarillion p. 26: ‘Manwë and Melkor were brethren in the thought of Ilúvatar’)-—óðre fífe: i. e. the other Valar with the exclusion of Manwë and Melkor. See p. 349, Old English text lines 1-4. 28 Geafanna: see p. 344, note to line 26.
28-30 It is very notable that Aulë and Yavanna are here (alone) said to have become husband and wife (wurdon to sinhíwan) after the Valar came into the world. In The Silmarillion the only union among the Valar that is said to have taken place after the entry into Arda is that of Tulkas and Nessa; and Tulkas came late to Arda (pp. 35-6). See further p. 349.
This is not a version, but a single page of manuscript with, first, a different beginning to the Annals of Valinor in Modern English, and then ten lines, written very rapidly, in Old English. Both contain interesting features. The first reads as follows:
Annals of Valinor
These were written first by Rúmil the Elfsage of Valinor, and after by Pengolod the Wise of Gondolin, who made also the Annals of Beleriand, and the Pennas that are set forth below. These also did Ælfwine of the Angelcynn turn into speech of his land.
Here beginneth the Annals of Valinor and the foundations of the world.
Of the Valar and their kindred
At the beginning Ilúvatar, that is Allfather, made all things, and the Valar, or Powers, came into the world. These are nine: Manwë, Ulmo, Aulë, Oromë, Tulkas, Ossë, Lórien, Mandos, and Melko.
Pennas is here used in the narrow sense of ‘The History of the Gnomes' (Quenta Noldorinwa, Silmarillion): see p. 338. Here Rúmil appears as author, and in view of the interpolation in AV (note 20) ‘Here endeth that which Rúmil wrote’ it is clear that the words of this preamble These were written first by Rúmil... and after by Pengolod’ mean that Pengolod completed what Rúmil began. The next version of the Annals of Valinor in fact makes this explicit, for after ‘Here endeth that which Rúmil wrote’ the later text has ‘Here followeth the continuation of Pengolod’; and the two interpolations in AV (notes 14 and 18) concerning events in Middle-earth before the Return of the Noldoli are embodied in the second version as additions by Pengolod: ‘This have I, Pengolod, added here, for it was not known unto Rúmil. ’
In the original tale of The Music of the Ainur (I. 47-8) Rúmil was a Noldo of Kôr, * but he also spoke to Eriol of his ‘thraldom under Melko’. From the reference here to Rúmil as ‘the Elfsage of Valinor’, however, and from his ignorance of events in Middle-earth, it seems clear that in the later conception he never left Valinor. It might be suggested that his part in the Annals ends where it does (p. 317 and note 20) because he was one of those who returned to Valinor with Finrod after hearing the Doom of Mandos. This is admittedly pure speculation, but it is perhaps significant that in the next version of the Annals the end of Rúmil's part in the work was moved on to the end of the entry for the Valian Year 2993, after the words ‘But Aulë their ancient friend smiled on them no more, and the Teleri were estranged’; thus his part ends with the actual record of Finrod's return, and of the reception that he and those with him received.
The passage in Old English that follows begins with virtually the same phrase, concerning Oromë and Tulkas, as that in version III lines 23-5; but this manuscript has a curious, uninterpretable sign between Orome and the plural verb wǽron, which in view of the other text I expand to mean 7 Tulkas.
Orome [7 Tulkas] wǽron gingran on Ealfǽderes geþóhtum acende ǽr þǽre worolde gescepennisse þonne óþre fífe, 7 Orome wearð Iafannan geboren, séo þe wyrð æfter nemned, ac he nis Aules sunu.
Mid þissum mihtigum cómon manige lǽssan gǽstasþ æs ilcan cynnes 7 cnéorisse, þéah lǽssan mægnes. Þás sindon
- As he remained; cf. The Silmarillion p. 63: ‘Then it was that the Noldor first bethought them of letters, and Rúmil of Tirion was the name of the loremaster who first achieved fitting signs for the recording of speech and song. ’ þá Vanimor, þá Fægran. Mid him éac þon wurdon getealde hira beam, on worolde acende, þá wǽron manige and swíþe fægre. Swylc wæs Fionwe Manwes sunu
There follow a few more words that are too uncertain to reproduce. Here Oromë, younger in the thought of Ilúvatar than the other great Valar ‘born before the making of the world’, is declared to be the son of Yavanna but not of Aulë, and this must be connected with the statement in the Old English version III that Yavanna and Aulë became sinhíwan after the entry of the Valar into the world (see p. 347-8, note to lines 28-30).
In what is said here concerning the lesser spirits of Valarin race there are differences from AV (p. 311) and the Old English version II (p. 340). In this present fragment these spirits are not called Valarindi but Vanimor, ‘the Fair’. * The Children of the Valar, ‘who were many and very beautiful’, are counted among the Vanimor, but, in contradiction to AV, they were on worolde acende, ‘born in the world’. At this time, it seems, my father was tending to emphasize the generative powers of the great Valar, though afterwards all trace of the conception disappeared.
- The word Vanimor has not occurred before, but its negative Úvanimor is defined in the tale of The Coming of the Valar (I. 75) as ‘monsters, giants, and ogres', and elsewhere in the Lost Tales Úvanimor are creatures bred by Morgoth (I. 236-7), and even Dwarves (II. 136).